All you need to know about Arc Welding: Types, Processes, & Benefits

Arc welding is a popular and mechanically and technologically advanced solution developed to combat the problem of breakage in metal equipment. The process generates permanent joints in materials with great strength, versatility, and durability, making it a suitable option for commercial purposes. With different types of welding processes available, arc welding is known and utilized for its characteristic benefits. There are different types of arc welding processes. Explore them through the article for better information and decision-making in your welding endeavors.

Introduction to ARC Welding 

Welding is defined as the process of joining or fabricating the joints. It is carried out at high temperatures, which melts the metal. Simultaneously, it is filled with the filler metal and cooled to solidify, providing back the strength of metal and equipment. The welding process is of multiple types, such as: 

  • Friction stir welding 
  • Laser beam welding 
  • Arc welding 
  • Forge welding 
  • Electron beam welding 
  • Magnetic pulse welding 

The arc welding process is among the most common types of welding processes witnessed today for joining metals. Multiple sub-types of arc welding are discussed in the article. The process makes use of high-temperature and consumable or non-consumable electrodes, depending on the type of process. Moreover, the fabrication process can be guided either mechanically or manually.  

Types of Arc Welding

There are two types of electrodes used in arc welding: consumable and non-consumable electrodes. Based on their usage, the different types of arc welding are as follows: 

Consumable Electrodes

Types of arc welding processes employing consumable electrodes are: 

MIG and MAG

Metal Inert Gas Welding (MIG) and Metal Active Gas Welding (MAG) are popularly called Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) and offer protection from contamination of base metals via shielding gas. It also utilizes consumable electrodes made of metal that are incorporated into the process through the machine. The gas metal arc welding process is considered to be versatile, simple, economical, and easily automated. 

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

It is popularly called as stick welding, flux-shielded arc welding, or manual metal arc welding. The welding process is ideal for linking ferrous and nonferrous materials with a wide range of thicknesses. It uses a traditional approach where an arc fills the gap between metal surfaces by generating high temperatures. It melts the rod and workpiece, making a weld pool. The high temperature surrounding the pool is maintained through the release of gas and slag. 

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

It is different from other processes as the welding joint here is completely submerged in the flux. The process requires continuous feeding of consumable electrodes. The conductive nature of the developed flux allows for the smooth carrying out of the welding process. Further, it also suppresses the fumes and ultraviolet radiation and prevents sparks and spatter. 

Non Consumable Electrode 

The types employing the usage of non-consumable electrodes are: 

Carbon Arc Welding

A non-consumable carbon arc is used in this process to merge the gap between the metals. The process generates high levels of fumes and spatters, making it unsafe. The associated disadvantages have led to the replacement of the welding process with modern techniques. However, the unique capabilities of the process have not completely eradicated its usage. Carbon arc welding also requires experience and expertise to handle the arc and perform the process along with the constant current power source. 

Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)

It is the type of arc welding process that uses ionized gases to generate ‘hot plasma jets.’ It is the highly preferred method and exhibits increased efficiency for narrow and deep welds. The high speed of extremely hot jets is one of the unique and advantageous characteristics of the process. 

Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG)

Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG) or Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is used in almost all industrial fields. This type of arc welding gained popularity overnight in the 1940s for linking aluminium and magnesium alloys. Gas tungsten arc welding is primarily utilised to obtain high-quality welded joints. Here, the welding process generates weld with non-consumable tungsten electrodes. 

Process of Arc Welding

The process of arc welding occurs as follows: 

Step 1: An electric arc is created through the application of voltage across the two electrodes. The procedure leads to a connection between electrodes through electricity. 

Step 2: The electrical connection melts the metal due to extremely high temperatures, specifically above 3000 degrees Celsius.  

Step 3: The melting converts metal into a molten metal state. 

Step 4: The molten metal and filler from consumable electrodes join together to form a molten mixture. 

Step 5: As the arc moves on, the temperature across the mixture decreases, letting it cool and solidify, which subsequently fills the gap. 

Benefits of Arc Welding

There are numerous benefits of electrical arc welding. Let us explore some of the following:

  • Arc welding machines are simple and portable, allowing easy application at any desired location. 
  • The arc welding equipment is affordable 
  • The requirement of shielding gas is not mandatory to carry out the process 
  • The high temperature reached during the welding process allows quick completion of the task of joining the metal parts or pieces, saving time 
  • The quantity of generated smoke, spatter, spark, and flash are lesser in amount compared to other types of welding 
  • Non-ideal conditions of the atmosphere do not limit the process 
  • The higher impact strength of the arc welding process makes the welded items capable of withstanding heavy loads 
  • It also offers resistance to corrosion, thus eliminating the expenditure of extra cost to apply corrosion-resistant items 
  • Arc welding also fits into imperfect sizes requiring welding 

Quality Welding with L&T SuFin

Metallic workings are common in industries and other commercial purposes. Looking for the right material from the market that can deliver the desired workings as required can be a tedious process. Helping SMEs by saving their time and offering quality service, the L&T SuFin offers products only from trusted brands and sellers. Efficient customer service is also available to answer any type of query or solve any problems our customers come across. 

For emergencies, you can click on the ‘Buy Now’ process and enjoy quick delivery to satisfy your needs. Additionally, we also offer loans at competitive market rates. With L&T-SuFin, enjoy your journey of rebuilding metals and costly equipment. 

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